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Computer Organization and Architecture is a subject area of interest for the students, researchers as well as the professionals who are in the field of Electronics and/or Computer Science. As the name suggests, it deals with what are the different parts of a computer system, how they work and what is the inter-relation between them.

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Here's the exhaustive list of topics in Computer Organization and Architecture in which we provide Help with Homework Assignment and Help with Project, for your reference:

  • Computer Architecture
  • Technology Trends
  • Cost Trends
  • Performance Comparison
  • Program’s Execution Time
  • Performance Comparisons
  • Numeric’s
  • Normalizing the Performance
  • Amdahl's Law
  • The CPU Performance Equation
  • Convenient Forms of the Equation
  • Usefulness of the Equation
  • Measuring the Parameters for the Equation
  • A Design Example
  • Solution for Design Example
  • Example: Using Caches
  • The Memory Hierarchy
  • Modifying the CPU Performance Equation
  • Announcements
  • Instruction Set
  • Instruction Set Architecture
  • The Design Space
  • Classes of ISAs
  • GPR Advantages
  • Spectrum of GPR Choices
  • Memory Addressing
  • Addressing Modes
  • Usage of Addressing Modes
  • How many Bits for Displacement
  • How many Bits for Immediate
  • Type and Size of Operands
  • Deciding the Set of Operations
  • Instructions for Control Flow
  • Design Issues for Control Flow Instructions
  • What is the Nature of Compares
  • Compare and Branch
  • Single Instruction or Two
  • Managing Register State during Call/Return
  • Instruction Encoding Issues
  • Styles of Encoding
  • The Role of the Compiler
  • ISA Design to Help the Compiler
  • DLX ,DLX Architecture
  • Registers and Data Types
  • DLX Memory Addressing
  • DLX Instruction Format
  • DLX Operations
  • DLX Performance
  • MIPS vs VAX
  • Pipelining
  • A Simple DLX Implementation
  • The DLX Data-path
  • DLX Unpipelined Implementation
  • The Basic Pipeline for DLX
  • The Pipelined Data-path
  • Some Performance Numerics
  • Pipeline Hazards
  • Structural Hazards
  • Stalling the Pipeline
  • Why Allow Structural Hazards
  • Data Hazards
  • Register File
  • Reads after Writes
  • Minimizing Stalls via Forwarding
  • Data Forwarding for Stores
  • Data Hazard Classification
  • Stalls due to Data Hazard
  • Avoiding such Stalls
  • Data Hazards
  • Pipeline Interlock for Load
  • Control Logic for Data-Forwarding
  • Control Hazard
  • Reducing the Branch Delay
  • Branch Behaviour of Programs
  • Handling Control Hazards
  • Predict Untaken Scheme
  • Ways to Reduce Control Hazard Delays
  • Delayed Branch
  • Filling the Delay-Slot: Option 1 of 3
  • Filling the Delay-Slot:Option 2 of 3
  • Filling the Delay-Slot: Option 3 of 3
  • Helping the Compiler
  • Static Branch Prediction
  • Static Misprediction Rates
  • Issues in Pipelining
  • Exceptions and Pipelining
  • Exceptions
  • The Nemesis of Pipelining
  • Classification of Exceptions
  • Exception Classification
  • Restarting Execution
  • Exceptions in DLX
  • Complications in Pipelining
  • Pipelining Multi-cycle Opns
  • The Multi-cycle Pipeline
  • Pipeline Timing: An Example
  • Estimating Execution Time
  • Segment Cleaning
  • Segment Cleaning Policies
  • Crash Recovery
  • RAID
  • Storing Target Instructions
  • ILP
  • Increasing ILP through Multiple Issue
  • Superscalar DLX
  • Static Scheduling in the Superscalar DLX: An Example
  • Dynamic Scheduling in the Superscalar DLX
  • Multiple Issue using VLIW
  • Limitations to Multiple Issue
  • Support for ILP
  • Compiler Support for ILP
  • Software Pipelining
  • Software Pipelining in Our Example
  • Trace Scheduling
  • Hardware Support for Speculation
  • Scheduling Using Conditional Instructions
  • Limitations of Conditional Instructions
  • Speculation
  • Speculation: An Example
  • Exception Behaviour
  • Preserving Exception Behaviour
  • Boosted Instructions: An Example
  • Hardware-Based Speculation
  • Speculation in Tomasulo
  • The Reorder Buffer
  • Tomasulo Using the Reorder Buffer
  • Pipeline Stages
  • Summary of ILP Techniques
  • How Much ILP is Available?
  • Available ILP in Programs
  • Window Size Limitation
  • Effect of Imperfect Branch Predictions
  • Effect of Finite Virtual Register Set
  • A Realizable Processor
  • ILP for a Realizable Processor
  • Memory Hierarchy
  • Cache Design Questions
  • Block Placement: Fully Associative
  • Block Placement: Direct
  • Block Placement: Set Associative
  • Continuum of Choices
  • Block Identification
  • Block Replacement Policy
  • Replacement Policy Performance
  • Write Strategy
  • When do Writes go to Memory? Write Stalls
  • What to do on a Write Miss?
  • The Alpha AXP 21064 Cache
  • Steps in Memory Read
  • Steps in Memory Write
  • Separate versus Unified Cache
  • Cache Performance
  • CPU Performance with Cache
  • Effect of Cache on Performance
  • Improving Cache Performance
  • Cache Misses
  • The Three C's
  • Reducing Cache Misses
  • Technique-1:Larger Blocks
  • Technique-2: Higher Associativity
  • Technique-3: Victim Cache
  • Technique-4: Pseudo-Associative Cache
  • Technique-5: Hardware Prefetching
  • Technique-6: Compiler Controlled Prefetch
  • Technique-7: Compiler Optimizations
  • Miss-Rate Reduction:Summary
  • Technique-1: Prioritize Read Misses over Writes
  • Technique-2:Sub-BlockPlacement
  • Technique-3:Restart CPUASAP
  • Technique-4:Non-blocking Cache
  • Non-Block Cache Performance
  • Technique-5: Second-Level Caches
  • Local and Global Miss Rates
  • Second Level Cache Design
  • Small and Simple Caches
  • Other Techniques
  • Virtual Memory
  • But Quite Different Quantitatively
  • Paging versus Segmentation
  • The Four Memory Hierarchy Questions
  • Trade-Offs in Page-Size
  • Fast Translation
  • Overlapping Tag Access with Translation
  • Alternate Strategy: Avoid Translation
  • Dealing with Virtually Addressed Caches
  • Main Memory
  • Main Memory Performance: One-Word Wide Memory
  • Technique-1: Wider Memory
  • Technique-2: Interleaved-Memory
  • Technique-3: Independent Memory Banks
  • Memory-Bank Conflicts
  • Technique-4: Avoiding Memory- Bank Conflicts
  • Technique-5: DRAM-Specific Interleaving
  • Virtual Memory and Protection
  • ILP and Caching
  • ILP vs. Caching:Compiler Choices
  • Caches and Consistency
  • Multiprocessors
  • Multiprocessors: The SIMD Model
  • Log-Structured File System
  • The Log as the Structure
  • Free Space Management
  • SAXPY/DAXPY Loop
  • Vector Processing
  • Basic Architecture
  • Some Vector Instructions
  • Hazards
  • Multiple Writes/Cycle: An Example
  • Multiple Writes/Cycle: Solution
  • Data Hazards
  • Handling WAW Hazards
  • Control Hazard Complications
  • Achieving Precise Exceptions
  • Instruction Level Parallelism
  • Techniques for Improving ILP
  • Loop-Level Parallelism
  • Loop-Level Parallelism: An Example
  • The Loop
  • in DLX
  • How Many Cycles per Loop
  • Reducing Stalls by Scheduling
  • Unrolling the Loop
  • How Many Cycles per Loop
  • Scheduling the Unrolled Loop
  • Observations and Requirements
  • Dependences
  • Data Dependence
  • Name Dependence
  • Name Dependence in our Example
  • Control Dependence
  • Control Dependence in our Example
  • ILP: Recall
  • Handling Control Dependence
  • Loop Unrolling: a Relook
  • Removing Loop-Carried Dependence
  • Static vs. Dynamic Scheduling
  • Dynamic Scheduling
  • CDC 6600: A Case Study
  • The CDC Scoreboard
  • The Scoreboard Solution
  • Scoreboard Control & the Pipeline Stages
  • The Scoreboard Data-Structures
  • Limitations of the Scoreboard
  • Dynamic Scheduling
  • Register Renaming: Basic Idea
  • Tomasulo: Main Architectural Features
  • The Tomasulo Architecture
  • Pipeline Stages
  • Register Renaming
  • The Data Structure
  • Components of RS
  • Reg. File,Load/Store Buffers
  • Maintaining the Data Structure
  • Some Examples
  • Dynamic Loop Unrolling
  • Summary
  • Dealing with Control Hazards
  • Branch Prediction Buffer
  • Two-Bit Predictor
  • Implementing Branch Prediction Buffers
  • Prediction Performance
  • Improving Branch Prediction
  • Improving Prediction Accuracy
  • Two-Level Predictor
  • Cost of Two-Level Predictor
  • Performance of (2,2) Predictor
  • Branch Target Buffer
  • Steps in Using a Target Buffer
  • Penalties in Branch Prediction
  • SIMD Drawbacks
  • Multiprocessors: The MIMD Model
  • MIMD: The Centralized Shared-Memory Model
  • MIMD: Physically Distributed Memory
  • Communication Models with Physically Distributed Memory
  • Multiprocessing: Classification
  • Multiprocessing: Classification
  • DSM vs. Message Passing
  • Achieving the Desired Communication Model
  • Challenges in Parallel Processing
  • Addressing the Challenges
  • Some Example Applications
  • Parallel Application Kernels
  • Parallel Applications
  • Computation to Communication Ratios
  • Multiprogrammed OS workload
  • Cache Coherence
  • Notions of Coherence and Consistency
  • Styles of Coherence Protocols
  • Styles of Snooping Protocols
  • Write-invalidate vs. Write-update
  • Snooping-Based Protocols
  • Towards Directory-Based Protocols
  • Synchronization
  • Synchronization and Coherence
  • Load-Linked/Store-Conditional
  • Using Atomic Exchange for Spin-Locks
  • Barrier Locks
  • Performance Optimizations
  • Sequential Consistency
  • Implementing Sequential Consistency
  • Synchronized Programs
  • Sequential Consistency and Synchronized Programs
  • Memory Access Orderings
  • Relaxed Consistency Models
  • Interconnection Networks
  • Switching versus Routing
  • MPP Network Topology Design
  • Input/output
  • Storage Technologies
  • Buses for Communication
  • Bus Design Choices
  • Other Design Choices
  • I/O Performance
  • I/O Performance
  • UNIX's Old File System
  • UNIX Fast File System (FFS)
  • Enhancing Vector Performance
  • Adding Flexibility