+1 678 648 4277 

The exhaustive list of topics in Microelectronic Fabrication Processes in which we provide Help with Homework Assignment and Help with Project is as follows:

  • Chip Manufacturing Process, FEOL and BEOL concepts
  • PhotoLithography:
    • Lithography basics
    • Layout, hierarchy vs flat file
    • Levels and layers in layout file.
    • Mask making with e-beam
    • Alignment and test structures in masks.
  • Lithography details:
    • Projection printing
    • Dark field mask
    • Positive resist and its advantages.
    • Process details including resist coating
    • Pre-exposure bake, exposure, soft bake, developing and hard bake.
    • Stepper vs scanner.
  • Advanced Lithography
  • Resolution
  • Numerical aperture
  • Optical proximity correction (OPC)
  • Anti reflective coating (ARC)
  • Phase shift mask (PSM).
  • Production issues:
    • Depth of focus
    • Focus exposure matrix
    • Misalignment
    • Partial field vs full field
    • Next generation litho (Extreme UV, XRay).
    • Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) basics
    • Equipment description and operation details
    • RF/magnetron sputtering
    • Long throw
    • Ionized metal plasma (IMP) sputtering
    • Collimated beam
    • Sputtering yield.
    • Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) basics
    • Atmospheric pressure (APCVD)
    • Low pressure (LPCVD)
    • Plasma enhanced (PECVD)
    • Mass transfer control and reaction kinetics control.
    • Reactor description and operation
    • Deposition of silicon
    • Poly silicon, oxide, nitride and tungsten.
    • Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular beam epitaxy (MBE).
    • Electrochemical deposition
    • Electro-migration vs grain size
    • Conformal
    • Anti conformal and super fill.
    • Suppressor
    • Accelerator, levelers, effect of seed layer, spin on coating.
  • Wet etching:
    • Isotropic etch
    • Selectivity
    • Anisotropic Si etch in KOH
    • Cleaning
    • Micro loading and process proximity correction (ppc).
    • Chemicals for oxide and nitride removal
    • Effect of dopants
    • Photoresist development.
  • Dry etching :
    • Plasma
    • Anisotropic etch
    • Equipment details and operation.
    • Reactive ion etching (RIE)
    • Veil formation and de-veil
    • Electrostatic discharge (ESD)
    • Aluminum etch.
    • Chemical Mechanical planarization (CMP) basics
    • Dishing
    • Erosion
    • Issues in Shallow Trench Isolation.
    • Oxide Polish and Copper Polish
    • Dummy fill
    • Slotting.
  • FEOL:
    • Semiconductor electron band structure
    • Band gap MOS capacitor
    • MOS transistor structure for enhancement mode devices.
  • MOS transistor operation:
    • I-V curve
    • Pinch off
    • Hot carrier effect
    • Lightly doped drain (LDD)
    • Scaling.
  • Diffusion :
    • Junction depth
    • Concentration profile
    • Interstitial and substitutional diffusion.
    • Constant source and limited source diffusion
    • Dopant redistribution
    • Lateral diffusion
    • Rapid thermal annealing
    • Gettering.
  • Ion implantation :
    • Detailed Equipment description
    • Ion source
    • Analyzer
    • Accelerator
    • Scanning
    • Target chamber
    • Elastic and inelastic collisions
    • Transverse straggle
    • Channeling and methods to prevent channeling.
  • Oxidation:
    • Native oxide
    • Wet and dry oxidation
    • Electro-chemical oxidation
    • Solubility and diffusion of various species in oxide.
    • Deal-Grove model
    • Exponential growth regime
    • Effect of doping.
  • Process Integration:
    • BEOL Issues
    • Cu vs Al metallization
    • Oxide vs low-k integration.
  • Testing:
    • Scribe line Test (for process evaluation)
    • Functional Test (for product evaluation)
    • Optical testing (KLA).
    • Yield Models
    • Process and design modifications for yield optimization.
  • Tools and Techniques:
    • SEM
    • FIB
    • AFM
    • Ellipsometry.