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Process Control and Instrumentation

The exhaustive list of topics in Process Control and Instrumentation Problems in which we provide Help with Homework Assignment and Help with Project is as follows:

  • Representative process control problems -Liquid Surge Tank, Blending Process.
  • Incentives for Chemical Process Control.
  • Classification of variables and design elements of a control system.
  • Modeling Considerations:
    • Rationale for process modeling.
    • General modeling principles; balance equations - mass, energy, momentum; Thermodynamics and reaction kinetics; degrees of freedom analysis.
    • State variables, State equations; input-output models.
    • Lumped and distributed parameter systems.
    • Steady state and dynamic behavior.
    • Examples – liquid serge tank, isothermal chemical reactor.
  • Dynamic behavior of Chemical Processes:
    • Solving algebraic equations and integration of ODEs.
    • Concept of nonlinearity; linearization of nonlinear processes; deviation variables.
    • Concept of Laplace Transform (LT); the LT of basic functions - step, impulse, pulse, ramp, exponential, integral, derivative, time delay; initial and final value theorems.
    • Solution of differential equation using LT techniques - Partial fraction expansion, direct division.
    • Transfer function of Single Input Single Output (SISO) process; Transfer function matrix of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) process.
    • Properties of transfer function; Poles and Zeros of a transfer function; stability issues, unstable and non-minimum phase behavior.
    • Dynamic response of a first order process, first order plus dead time process, second order process, pure capacitive process, pure dead time, higher order process; inverse response; Padé approximation.
    • Interacting and non-interacting processes.
    • Development of Empirical model - Model development using linear and nonlinear regression, fitting first and second order models using step test results.
    • Frequency response analysis - Bode and Nyquist plot.
  • Feedback controller:
    • Feedback control.
    • Elements of Control loop - controller, measuring device, final control element, transmission lines, transducers, transmitters, block diagram.
    • Concept of servo and regulatory problems.
    • Selection of measured, manipulated and controlled variables.
    • Types of controller - P, PI, PID, on-off.
    • Effects of proportional, integral and derivative actions.
    • Notion of stability - characteristic equation, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root-locus analysis.
    • Design of feedback controller - performance criteria, controller tuning methods, Cohen-Coon method, 1/4th 12 decay ratio method, direct synthesis methods, gain and phase margins, Ziegler-Nichols method, Bode & Nyquist stability criteria, robustness analysis.
    • Compensation for large dead time and inverse response, Smith Pr
  • Other control strategies:
    • Feed forward controller - design with steady state model, design with dynamic model, combination of feed forward-feedback structure.
    • Cascade control structure - analysis and design.
    • Ratio control, split range control, selective control, override control, auctioneering control.
    • Concepts of adaptive and inferential control.
  • Multi loop multivariable control:
    • Process and control loop interaction.
    • Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Relative Gain Array (RGA), I/O pairing.
    • Sensitivity to model uncertainty; failure sensitivity.
    • Decoupling and design of non-interacting control loops.
    • Example - Design of controller and control structure for a 4 input x 4 output Distillation Column.
  • Instrumentation:
    • Final Control Elements - Valve characteristics, thyristors.
    • Measuring Devices for flow, temperature, pressure and level.
    • Instrumentation symbols.
    • Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID).