The exhaustive list of topics in Process Control and Instrumentation Problems in which we provide **Help with Homework Assignment** and **Help with Project** is as follows:

- Representative process control problems -Liquid Surge Tank, Blending Process.
- Incentives for Chemical Process Control.
- Classification of variables and design elements of a control system.
**Modeling Considerations:**- Rationale for process modeling.
- General modeling principles; balance equations - mass, energy, momentum; Thermodynamics and reaction kinetics; degrees of freedom analysis.
- State variables, State equations; input-output models.
- Lumped and distributed parameter systems.
- Steady state and dynamic behavior.
- Examples – liquid serge tank, isothermal chemical reactor.

**Dynamic behavior of Chemical Processes:**- Solving algebraic equations and integration of ODEs.
- Concept of nonlinearity; linearization of nonlinear processes; deviation variables.
- Concept of Laplace Transform (LT); the LT of basic functions - step, impulse, pulse, ramp, exponential, integral, derivative, time delay; initial and final value theorems.
- Solution of differential equation using LT techniques - Partial fraction expansion, direct division.
- Transfer function of Single Input Single Output (SISO) process; Transfer function matrix of Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO) process.
- Properties of transfer function; Poles and Zeros of a transfer function; stability issues, unstable and non-minimum phase behavior.
- Dynamic response of a first order process, first order plus dead time process, second order process, pure capacitive process, pure dead time, higher order process; inverse response; Padé approximation.
- Interacting and non-interacting processes.
- Development of Empirical model - Model development using linear and nonlinear regression, fitting first and second order models using step test results.
- Frequency response analysis - Bode and Nyquist plot.

**Feedback controller:**- Feedback control.
- Elements of Control loop - controller, measuring device, final control element, transmission lines, transducers, transmitters, block diagram.
- Concept of servo and regulatory problems.
- Selection of measured, manipulated and controlled variables.
- Types of controller - P, PI, PID, on-off.
- Effects of proportional, integral and derivative actions.
- Notion of stability - characteristic equation, Routh-Hurwitz criteria, root-locus analysis.
- Design of feedback controller - performance criteria, controller tuning methods, Cohen-Coon method, 1/4th 12 decay ratio method, direct synthesis methods, gain and phase margins, Ziegler-Nichols method, Bode & Nyquist stability criteria, robustness analysis.
- Compensation for large dead time and inverse response, Smith Pr

**Other control strategies:**- Feed forward controller - design with steady state model, design with dynamic model, combination of feed forward-feedback structure.
- Cascade control structure - analysis and design.
- Ratio control, split range control, selective control, override control, auctioneering control.
- Concepts of adaptive and inferential control.

**Multi loop multivariable control:**- Process and control loop interaction.
- Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), Relative Gain Array (RGA), I/O pairing.
- Sensitivity to model uncertainty; failure sensitivity.
- Decoupling and design of non-interacting control loops.
- Example - Design of controller and control structure for a 4 input x 4 output Distillation Column.

**Instrumentation:**- Final Control Elements - Valve characteristics, thyristors.
- Measuring Devices for flow, temperature, pressure and level.
- Instrumentation symbols.
- Process Flow Diagram (PFD) and Piping & Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID).